NMN or Nicotinamide Mononucleotide is a molecule that has been gaining a lot of attention lately due to its potential health benefits. As we age, our NAD+ levels decline, which can result in various age-related diseases. However, NMN has shown promise in boosting NAD+ levels and reversing some of the signs of ageing. But how is NMN produced in the body? In this blog post, we’ll dive into the primary pathway for NMN production and the key enzyme responsible for its synthesis.
Overview of NMN Production Pathway
Nicotinamide Mononucleotide (NMN) is a vital molecule in our body that plays a crucial role in several biological processes. It is an essential component in the synthesis of Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD+), a molecule that is involved in energy production and cellular metabolism. So, how is NMN manufactured? Where is NMN manufactured? It’s time to get you some answers.
NAD+ as a precursor for NMN production
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) plays a vital role in the production of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), a molecule that has shown potential in enhancing longevity and preventing age-related diseases. NAD+ is a coenzyme found in all living cells that play a crucial role in various biological processes, including metabolism and DNA repair.
The primary pathway
In the primary pathway for NMN production, NAD+ serves as a precursor for NMN production. NAD+ is converted into NMN through the action of an enzyme called nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT). The conversion of NAD+ to NMN is a complex biochemical reaction that involves the transfer of a ribose and phosphate group from NAD+ to NMN.
So, where is NMN manufactured? The primary pathway for NMN production occurs mainly in the liver, where NAMPT is present in high concentrations. Other tissues, including skeletal muscle, brain, and adipose tissue, also produce NMN, although at lower levels.
It’s worth noting that NMN can also be produced through other pathways. For instance, another enzyme, nicotinamide riboside kinase 1 (NRK1), can convert nicotinamide riboside (NR) into NMN. However, the NAD+ pathway remains the most efficient and widely recognized pathway for NMN production.
In summary, NAD+ is a precursor for NMN production and is converted into NMN by the enzyme NAMPT. NMN can also be produced through other pathways, although the NAD+ pathway remains the primary pathway for NMN production. Knowing how NMN is manufactured is essential for understanding its potential benefits in preventing age-related diseases and enhancing longevity.
The Role of NAMPT in NMN Production
Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase, or NAMPT, plays a critical role in the pathway of NMN production. As mentioned earlier, NMN is primarily produced through the conversion of NAD+ to NMN, which is catalyzed by NAMPT.
What is NAMPT?
NAMPT is an enzyme that is found in all cells of the body and is responsible for the synthesis of NAD+. It does this by catalyzing the transfer of a phosphoribosyl group from 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP) to nicotinamide (NAM) to form nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN). NMN is then converted to NAD+ through another set of reactions.
It is worth noting that NAMPT is a rate-limiting enzyme in the production of NAD+. This means that the amount of NAD+ produced is dependent on the activity of NAMPT. If there is not enough NAMPT activity, the production of NAD+ will be limited, which in turn affects the production of NMN.
What study shows
Studies have shown that NAMPT activity decreases with age, which is thought to contribute to the decline in NAD+ levels that occurs with ageing. This decrease in NAMPT activity is also thought to contribute to the development of age-related diseases.
In summary, NAMPT plays a crucial role in the production of NMN by catalyzing the conversion of NAM to NMN, which is then converted to NAD+. The activity of NAMPT is essential for maintaining adequate levels of NAD+ and NMN, which are both critical molecules involved in various cellular processes. Understanding how NAMPT works and how it is regulated is critical for understanding how NMN is manufactured and its role in ageing and disease.
Other pathways for NMN production
While the primary pathway for NMN production involves the conversion of NAD+ into NMN by NAMPT, there are other pathways that can lead to the production of NMN. One such pathway involves the direct conversion of nicotinamide riboside (NR) into NMN by an enzyme called nicotinamide riboside kinase (NRK).
NR is a form of vitamin B3 that can be found in foods like milk and yeast. When consumed, NR can be converted into NMN by NRK, bypassing the need for NAD+ and NAMPT. This pathway is becoming increasingly popular in the production of NMN supplements.
Conversion of tryptophan
Another pathway for NMN production involves the direct conversion of tryptophan, an amino acid found in protein-rich foods like meat and eggs, into NMN. This pathway involves several enzymatic reactions, including the conversion of tryptophan into quinolinic acid, which can then be converted into NMN.
Despite these alternative pathways, the primary pathway for NMN production through NAD+ and NAMPT remains the most well-known and studied. As the field of research continues to evolve, it’s possible that new pathways for NMN production will be discovered, shedding further light on how NMN is manufactured in the body.